如何进行SWOT分析(附例子 & 免费模板!)

丹接受本报
最后更新日期:2022年2月25日 | 市场营销观念
首页博客如何进行SWOT分析(附例子 & 免费模板!)

如果你曾经在公司办公环境中工作过, 你可能遇到过“SWOT分析”这个词.” This has nothing to do with evaluating militarized law enforcement response units, 一切都与花很长时间有关, 仔细审视你的公司.

SWOT分析

Conducting SWOT分析 is a powerful way to evaluate your company or project, 不管你是两个人还是五百个人. 在这篇文章中, 你会学到:什么是SWOT分析, 看一些SWOT分析的例子, 并学习你自己进行全面SWOT分析的技巧和策略. You’ll also see how you can use the data a SWOT exercise yields to improve your internal processes and workflows, 并得到一个免费的, 可编辑的SWOT分析模板.

SWOT分析完整指南:

表的内容

什么是SWOT分析?

A SWOT分析 is a technique used to determine and define your 的优势, 弱点, 机会, 和威胁- SWOT.

时间戳:
0:20:知情计划的重要性
0:30:为什么要进行SWOT分析?
0:50:什么是SWOT分析?
1:07: SWOT分析:优势
1:57: SWOT分析:弱点
3:01: SWOT分析:机会
3:24: SWOT分析:威胁
3:50:如何做SWOT分析

 

SWOT analyses can be applied to an entire company or organization, 或者单个部门的单个项目. 最常见的, SWOT analyses are used at the organizational level to determine how closely a business is aligned with its growth trajectories and success benchmarks, but they can also be used to ascertain how well a particular project – such as 在线广告活动 -是根据最初的预测执行.

随你怎么称呼它们, SWOT analyses are often presented as a grid-like matrix with four distinct quadrants – one representing each individual element. 本演示提供了几个好处, such as identifying which elements are internal versus external, 并显示广泛的数据在一个易于阅读, 以视觉为主的格式.

分解SWOT分析定义

我们知道SWOT代表优势, 弱点, 机会, 和威胁——但这些元素都意味着什么? 让我们单独看一下每个元素.

的优势

SWOT分析的第一个要素是优势.

  • 你们公司做得好的方面
  • 让你从竞争对手中脱颖而出的品质
  • 内部资源,如熟练、知识渊博的员工
  • 有形资产,如知识产权、资本、专有技术等.

SWOT分析优势实例

你可能已经猜到了, this element addresses things that your company or project does especially well. 这可能是一些无形的东西,比如 你公司的品牌属性,或者更容易定义的东西,如 独特的销售主张 一个特定的产品线. 也可能是你的人, 你的人力资源:强大的领导力, 或者一个伟大的工程团队.

弱点

一旦你找到了自己的优势, it’s time to turn that critical self-awareness on your weaknesses.

  • 你的公司缺少的东西
  • 你的竞争对手比你做得更好的事情
  • 资源限制
  • 不明确的独特销售主张

SWOT分析弱点例子

是什么阻碍了你的事业或项目? 这一要素可以包括组织挑战,如技术人员短缺和 财政或预算限制.

SWOT分析的这一要素还可能包括与你所在行业的其他公司相比的弱点, such as the lack of a clearly defined USP in a crowded market.

机会

下一个是机会.

  • 特定产品服务不足的市场
  • 在你的领域里几乎没有竞争者
  • 对你的产品或服务的新需求
  • 有关贵公司的新闻/媒体报道

SWOT分析机会实例

跟不上 产生的导线量 你的营销团队? 这是一个机会. 你的公司正在开发一个创新的新想法,将打开新的市场或人口统计? 这是另一个机会.

In short, this element of SWOT分析 covers everything you could do to 提高销售, 成长为一家公司,或者推进组织的使命.

威胁

The final element of SWOT分析 is 威胁 – everything that poses a risk to either your company itself or its likelihood of success or growth.

  • 新兴竞争对手
  • 不断变化的监管环境
  • 负面新闻/媒体报道
  • 改变客户对你公司的态度

SWOT分析威胁实例

这可能包括新兴竞争对手, 法规的变化, 金融风险, 以及几乎所有可能危及公司或项目未来的事情.

SWOT分析内外部因素

以上四个要素是所有SWOT分析的共同之处. 然而, 许多公司进一步将这些元素划分为两个不同的子组:内部和外部.

内部因素

通常, 优点和缺点被认为是内部因素, 因为它们是在你的公司或团队控制下的组织决策的结果. A 高流失率, 例如, 会被归类为弱点吗, but improving a 高流失率 is still within your control, 让它成为内部因素.

外部因素

类似的, emerging competitors would be categorized as a threat in SWOT分析, 但既然你对此无能为力, 这使得它成为一个外部因素. 这就是为什么你可能会看到SWOT分析被称为内部-外部分析或IE矩阵.

SWOT分析内部外部的例子

图像通过 Bplans

Subcategorizing your four primary elements into Internal and 外部因素 isn’t necessarily critical to the success of your SWOT分析, but it can be helpful in determining your next move or evaluating the degree of control you have over a given problem or opportunity.

Now that we know what each of the elements of SWOT分析 means, let’s take a look at how to go about creating and conducting SWOT分析.

如何进行SWOT分析

你可以在下面的视频中获得完整的体验, 这篇文章就是为了回答这个问题, 但是为了简单起见, 以下是如何进行SWOT分析的方法:

  1. 把你的团队聚集在一起——最好带上糖果.
  2. Set up your quadrants—on a whiteboard or projector (perhaps using our template).
  3. 从优点开始——问下面这些问题.
  4. 紧随其后的是弱点、机会和威胁.
  5. Organize the information collected into a neat and tidy document.
  6. 发送给团队并附上说明.
  7. Organize a second meeting to come up with action items and owners.
视频时间戳:
0:11:什么是SWOT分析?
0:42:如何做SWOT分析:会议设置技巧
1:30: SWOT分析的四个象限
2:53: SWOT分析优势
3:50: SWOT分析弱点
4:19: SWOT分析机会
5:25: SWOT分析威胁
5:55:如何处理结果

SWOT分析问题

就像 feature-benefit矩阵有几种方法来进行SWOT分析. 然而, 不管你选择如何组织你的分析, 我们首先要问一系列的问题. 以下是在执行SWOT分析时你应该寻求回答的问题的细分.

优势的问题

让我们以第一个元素“强项”为例. 来确定你作为一个组织的优势, 你可以从问以下几个问题开始:

  1. What do your customers love about your company or product(s)?
  2. What does your company do better than other companies in your industry?
  3. 你最积极的品牌属性是什么?
  4. 你独特的销售主张是什么?
  5. What resources do you have at your disposal that your competitors do not?

通过回答这些问题, 这样你就能很好地确定并列出你所在组织的优势.

SWOT分析九州体育馆app下载品牌属性的例子

Positive brand attributes associated with 九州体育馆app下载, as identified by our customers

疲软的问题

We can use the same principle to determine your company’s weaknesses:

  • What do your customers dislike about your company or product(s)?
  • What problems or complaints are often mentioned in your negative reviews?
  • 为什么你的客户会取消或流失?
  • 你们公司在哪些方面可以做得更好?
  • 你最负面的品牌属性是什么?
  • What are the biggest obstacles/challenges in your current sales funnel?
  • 你的竞争对手拥有哪些你没有的资源?

You may find that determining the strengths and weaknesses of your organization or project is considerably easier or takes less time than figuring out the opportunities and threats facing your company. This is because, as we said earlier, these are internal factors. 外部因素, 另一方面, 可能需要更多的努力和依赖更多的数据, as these are often beyond your immediate sphere of influence.

SWOT分析内外部因素关系图

机会的问题

Identifying opportunities and threats may require you to conduct in-depth 竞争情报研究 关于你的竞争对手在做什么, 或者是对可能对你的公司产生影响的更广泛的经济或商业趋势的研究. That’s not to say that opportunities and threats cannot be internal, however; you may discover opportunities and threats based solely on the strengths and weaknesses of your company. 你可以问一些问题来识别潜在的机会,包括:

  • How can we improve our sales/customer onboarding/customer support processes?
  • 什么样的信息能够与我们的客户产生共鸣?
  • 我们如何进一步吸引我们最具发言权的品牌倡导者?
  • 我们是否有效地分配部门资源?
  • 是否有预算、工具或其他资源我们没有充分利用?
  • Which advertising channels exceeded our expectations – and why?

威胁的问题

当涉及到威胁时,你当然可以先问一系列类似上述的问题. 然而, it’s often quite easy to come up with a list of potential threats facing your business or project without posing 问题 beforehand. This could include “branded” threats such as emerging or established competitors, broader threats such as changing regulatory environments and market volatility, 甚至是内部威胁,如高员工流动率,可能会威胁或阻碍当前的增长.

什么是PEST分析?

While we’re on the topic of internal versus external factors, 我想提一个与SWOT分析密切相关但完全独立的分析类型, 也就是PEST分析.

早些时候, I mentioned that external factors such as changing regulatory policies and market volatility could be considered threats in a standard SWOT分析. 然而, 尽管他们的重要性, 像这样的挑战通常是非常微妙的,由几十或数百个单独的因素驱动. This can place them beyond the scope or intent of a typical SWOT分析. 这就是为什么很多公司也进行PEST分析的原因.

SWOT分析PEST分析实例

这种类型的分析不是灭虫员到达蟑螂出没的公寓后所做的. 而, PEST分析的功能与SWOT分析非常相似, 只有他们关心四个外部因素:

  1. 政治
  2. 经济
  3. 社会文化
  4. 技术

PEST分析的优点

One of the main reasons it’s worth looking at PEST analyses is because many of the factors that could end up in a PEST matrix could also be relevant to the 机会 and 威胁 in our SWOT分析. 过去一年我们在美国看到的政治和经济动荡, 例如, 很可能对许多企业构成合法和严重的威胁(以及一些机会), but these kinds of obstacles tend to be much more complicated than the opportunities and threats you’d see in most SWOT analyses, given their broader scale and often-complex underlying factors.

经济泡沫的SWOT分析阶段

图像通过 Dr. 让·保罗·罗德里格/霍夫斯特拉大学

PEST分析的缺点

Obstacles identified in a typical 害虫分析 also tend to be on much longer timeframes – it’s a lot easier and quicker to try and overcome internal challenges like high staff turnover than it is to wait and see if the economy picks up (or if the bubble will burst again). That’s why many larger companies conduct both SWOT and PEST analyses simultaneously – the SWOT分析 provides them with more immediate, 潜在可行的路线图, whereas PEST analyses can be highly valuable when it comes to formulating longer-term plans and business strategies.

SWOT分析对小企业的好处

如果你是一个营销人员或小企业主, 你可能想知道SWOT分析对小公司和组织是否实用甚至可行. 尽管创建SWOT分析肯定会涉及到资源开销, 这样做有很多好处, 即使是最小的公司.

  • 鸟瞰: 为一个, conducting a comprehensive SWOT分析 provides a unique opportunity to gain greater insight into how your business operates. 你很容易迷失在公司的日常工作中, 进行SWOT分析可以让你获得更广阔的视野, bird’s eye view of your business and the position it occupies in your industry.
  • 改进具体的活动和项目. SWOT分析的另一个好处是,这种技术可以应用于广泛的场景, 而不仅仅是你的业务概览. You could use SWOT analyses to evaluate the potential strengths and weaknesses of a forthcoming advertising campaign, 计划的内容项目, or even whether your company should be represented at a trade show or industry event.

下面是一个项目SWOT分析的例子:

项目SWOT分析实例

图片来源

  • 发展的路线图. 很明显, it almost goes without saying that conducting SWOT分析 allows you to identify what your company does well, 可以改进的地方, 以及你们公司面临的机遇和威胁. 然而, 进行SWOT分析不仅为你提供了识别这些因素的机会, 同时也要为潜在的解决方案制定和实施切实可行的路线图和时间表. 这对制定预算计划是有益的, identifying hiring needs and other mid- to long-term strategic planning.

一个完整的SWOT分析例子

So, now we know what each element of SWOT分析 is concerned with and the kinds of exploratory 问题 we can ask to get the ball rolling, it’s time to actually get to work and create your SWOT分析.

来说明它是如何工作的, we’ll create our own SWOT分析 例子: a family-owned restaurant, 只有一个位置, 在城市地区运作的.

Here’s the SWOT分析 例子 based on our fictional restaurant:

SWOT分析实例矩阵

如你所见, this matrix format allows you to quickly and easily identify the various elements you’ve included in your 分析.

优势的例子

  • 好,交通繁忙的位置
  • 在当地社区有良好的声誉
  • 时令菜单,本地采购.

疲软的例子

  • 成本高于同类连锁餐厅
  • 单一的地点意味着有限的范围
  • 适度的广告预算
  • 目前不使用送餐app /技术

机会的例子

  • 越来越多的人对本地食材感兴趣
  • 时令菜单让食物保持新鲜和有趣
  • 通过外卖应用/技术实现潜在增长

威胁的例子

  • 来自老牌连锁餐厅的竞争日益激烈
  • 不确定的经济环境
  • 食材成本上升

SWOT分析例子:根据结果行动

So, you’ve finally got your hands on a completed SWOT matrix. 你已经确定了内部的优势和劣势,以及外部的机会和威胁. 你开始用全新的眼光看待你的公司.

现在?

理想情况下,在完成SWOT分析后,您应该采取两个阶段的行动. 首先,你应该尝试 将你的优势与机会相匹配. 接下来,你应该尝试 把弱点转化为优势. 让我们来看看它是如何工作的.

1. 利用你的优势

One of the best things about the strengths you identified in your SWOT分析 is that you’re already doing them.

SWOT分析实例优势

在我们上面的例子中,餐厅的位置、声誉和时令菜单都是优势. 这告诉这家虚构的公司,它应该继续试验其受欢迎的季节性菜单. It also tells the company it should continue to develop and nurture the strong relationships with its regular customers that have strengthened the restaurant’s reputation in the community.

本质上, 发挥企业的优势包括“多做你已经擅长的事情”.”

2. 巩固你的弱点

Acting on the weaknesses you identified in your SWOT分析 is a little trickier, 尤其是因为首先你必须对自己的弱点足够诚实.

SWOT分析图

回到我们的例子,其中一些弱点是非常具有挑战性的行动. 对小餐馆来说,与具有相当购买力的连锁餐厅竞争是非常困难的, 家族企业. 这家餐厅也在努力解决其有限的业务范围, 有限的广告预算的限制, and is also failing to leverage the potential to increase sales by allowing customers to order food online through delivery apps like Foodler or GrubHub.

然而,这并不是说所有的希望都破灭了. It might be harder for our 例子 business to compete with a chain, 但小公司还有很多其他方式可以增强竞争力——比如发展壮大, 与客户建立有意义的关系, 这不仅仅是公司的优势之一, 但这也是连锁餐厅无法提供的.

3. 抓住机遇

到目前为止,你的SWOT分析中的机会部分是最可行的,这是设计好的. By identifying opportunities by evaluating your organization’s strengths, 你应该有一个现成的目标清单.

机会SWOT分析图

在上面的例子中, 消费者对道德产品的需求不断增加, 当地种植的食材是一个重要的机会. 然而,我们的餐馆老板不能安于现状,还有很多工作要做. 在这个例子中, this may involve investing in technical expertise to take advantage of the opportunities presented by food delivery apps, or sourcing locally grown produce more aggressively in an attempt to reduce costs.

It’s also important to avoid hubris or complacency in your opportunities. Even if you have an iron-clad advantage over every other business in your industry, 没有投入足够的时间, 钱, or personnel resources in maintaining that advantage may result in you missing out on these opportunities over time.

每个企业的机会都是不同的, but it’s vital that you create a clearly defined roadmap for capitalizing upon the opportunities you’ve identified, 无论是内部还是外部.

4. 减轻威胁

Anticipating and mitigating the threats identified in your SWOT分析 may be the most difficult challenge you’ll face in this scenario, primarily because threats are typically external factors; there’s only so much you can do to mitigate the potential damage of factors beyond your control.

SWOT分析图威胁

过y threat, and the appropriate reaction to that threat, is different. Regardless of the specific threats you’ve identified in your SWOT分析, responding to and monitoring those threats should be among your very top priorities, irrespective of the degree of control you have over those threats.

在上面的例子中, all three threats are particularly challenging. 与连锁竞争对手的价格竞争, 我们的餐馆老板可能被迫在价值观上妥协,以获得更便宜的食材, or willingly cut into their profit margins to remain competitive. 类似的, economic uncertainty is virtually impossible to fully mitigate, making it a persistent threat to the stability of our 例子 restaurant business.

在一些SWOT分析中,机会和威胁之间可能有一些重叠. 例如,在 分析 以上, the popularity of locally sourced ingredients was identified as an opportunity, 加剧的竞争被认为是一种威胁. 在这个例子中, highlighting the restaurant’s relationships with local farmers – further reinforcing the restaurant’s commitment to the local community and regional economy – may be an effective way for our restaurateurs to overcome the threat posed by the increasingly desperate chain restaurants vying for their customers.

在汇总SWOT分析结果时, be sure to look for areas of crossover like this and see if it’s possible to seize an opportunity and reduce a threat at the same time.

免费SWOT分析模板

准备好为你自己的事业付诸实践了? 这是我们的 免费,可编辑,SWOT分析模板.

它是一个谷歌工作表,因此您可以添加和删除行, 编辑并回答问题, 粘贴到幻灯片中, 和更多的.

免费swot分析模板

视图全尺寸图像 | 打开谷歌表

我们也在这里抛出了一个空白的:

Swot分析模板空白

视图全尺寸图像 | 打开谷歌表

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丹接受本报

原产于美国.K., 丹接受本报是一名记者和网络内容专家,现在生活和写作在新英格兰. Dan’s work has appeared in a wide range of publications in print and online, 包括《九州体育馆app下载》, 《九州体育馆app下载》, 太平洋标准》杂志, 《九州体育馆app下载》, 在筹划的互联网趋势, 还有很多其他的渠道.

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